The general problem
One of the most embarrassing and potentially costly things we can do as developers is to send emails out to real people unintentionally from a development environment. It happens, and often times we aren’t even aware of it until the damage is done and a background process sends out, say, 11,000 automated emails to existing customers (actually happened to a former employer recently). In the Drupal world, there are myriad ways to attempt to address this problem.
General solutions to the general problem
- maillog - A Drupal module that logs mails to the database and optionally allows you to “not send” them
- reroute email - A Drupal module that intercepts email and routes it to a configurable address
- devel mail - An option of the beloved devel module which writes emails to local files instead of sending
- mailcatcher (not Drupal-specific) - Configure your local mail server to not send mail through PHP
The ultimate solution to the problem?
Never store real email addresses in your development environment. In the
Drupal world, we do that by using the
command. With no arguments,
how I typically execute it, the command will set all users emails addresses to
a phony address that looks like this:
firstname.lastname@example.org. This is a
good thing. Then, even in cases in which you do accidentally send out emails
in an automated way, often from cron, sending to phony addresses
is a livable mistake; no end-user receives an email that confuses
her or makes her lose confidence in your organization.
So, in most cases,
drush sqlsan (alias) is enough, and the mail redirection
options linked above are additional safety measures. Of course, I’m not
writing about most scenarios now am I? Sadly, I’m not yet aware of a
comprehensive solution that ensures no email will be sent from a development
environment. Please comment if you know of one!
The specific problem with
One pernicious case, in which
drush sqlsan is insufficient in sanitizing your
database, is when the
is enabled on a Drupal 7 site, at least without
class, which overwrites fields from the “base” table
users (in the case) to
the “revision” table,
user_revision, due to
the way that
. Therefore, when a user entity is loaded, it receives the
user_revision table. Without the above patch applied,
this table is not affected by
How did I discover this?
I discovered this when adding new cron, notification functionality to the
Tilthy Rich Compost website, which we maintain.
We began using the
module in 2013 due to losing information we still needed from canceling users. After sending emails to subscribers from my development
environment for the 10th time in 2 years, even after sanitizing, I was determined
to figure out once and for all, what was going on. So like any deep-dive, I
fired up the trusty ol’ debugger and discovered the aforementioned culprit.
The solution to the specific problem
After consulting Kosta, we agreed
that the solution would be to write a drush hook
user_revision module. This code would need to sanitize the
user_revision table and would be invoked when the
command is executed in the presence of the
user_revision module. However,
to write this code efficiently and effectively, I would need to debug drush commands
during execution, which I had never done.
How to debug drush (or other CLI scripts) with PHPStorm
Set up xdebug (Mac only)
Upgrade to latest drush
I ensured I was using the most recent version of drush (I strongly recommend perusing Brant’s about page) to ensure that the code I wrote would apply to most recent drush development.
Getting breakpoints in PHPStorm to listen to drush
Several have blogged about this before, so I’ll just point theirs out. Generally,
but I trust that my mentor and friend
Randy Fay’s article
is excellent as well. They all seemed to use
xdebug and PHPStorm,
and though I use PHPStorm, I have been using ZendDebugger for years, with
reasonable success. But I had been dissatisfied of late, and the rest of the
team uses xdebug anyway, so I figured it would be a safe switch,
which proved true. After having xdebug properly installed, you can
add a line
.bashrc file to always make PHPStorm ready to listen for drush
The solution in action
So now when running
we can truly feel safe that we won’t send emails to anyone we didn’t mean to.
You’re welcome community